Work Package 1 (WP1) aims to provide the interdisciplinary foundations towards smart societies as complex hybrid environments, where humans and machines synergically complement each other and operate collectively. It will include activities related to the definition of features and requirements of hybrid and diversity-aware collective adaptive systems, based on the foundational notions of diversity and compositionality. Given the major role played by the ‘human component’ in HDA-CASs, WP1 will focus on the integration of ‘responsible research and innovation’ concepts through the development of an ethical governance framework within the CAS domain. Such activities will include both conceptual and empirical investigations that address the societal and ethical implications which may arise when engineering a smart society. Concurrent with these activities we will develop formal data models for HDA-CASs and an axiomatic framework for human machine compositionality that are consistent with our interdisciplinary studies.